Friday, January 11, 2019

Measurement- While- Drilling (MWD)

Until 1980s it was difficult for the drill operators to know what was going on with the drill bit as the hole was being dug. Even after the innovation of Seismic imaging operators are still facing the issues. This problem is overcome by Measurement – While -Drilling (MWD) technology.

MWD allows operators to receive real-time information on the status of drilling, as well as the ability to steer the well in other directions. It relates information such as gamma rays, temperature and pressure, as well as the density and magnetic resonance of the rock formations. This serves a myriad of functions. It helps operators drill more efficiently while preventing blowouts and tool failures. It also helps operators show that they're not drilling into unauthorized areas.

What’s perhaps most amazing is how this information is transmitted up to the surface. Because it isn’t practical to string a wire or cable down the well from the surface to the drill bit, MWD instead relies on mud pulse telemetry. A mud slurry that is sent down into the well to carry debris back up (through the outer column of the well) provides a convenient acoustic channel to send mud pulses up in a binary code that is decoded on the surface.

Friday, December 28, 2018

Seismic Imaging

Oil Companies have to spend a lot of money for digging oil.They don't like to waste their time and money on an unproductive spot.There are so many failures in spotting the oil surface.

Seismic Imaging is one of the most important innovation in Oil Exploration helps in reducing the number of unproductive wells and useful to find the productive wells.

In seismic imaging process, an energy source such as vibrator truck send sound waves deep into the earth. This relies on the idea that sound bounces off and travels through different ways. Special devices called geophones are positioned on the surface, which receive the sounds that bounce backup and send the information to recorder trucks.

Engineers and geophysicists study the recorded sound waves to interpret what kinds of layers of rock formation lie in that location. This way, they can construct 3-D images of what lies under the surface. 

Thursday, December 13, 2018

History of OIL

Before the discovery of oil people used Wood and Coal.People burned wood for Cooking, Warmth and also used as a building material.Wood is reminded as a global fuel for centuries.

In 18th century after the invention of Steam Engines coal comes into picture. Steam Engines can be powdered either by wood or coal. Comparatively with wood, coal became the most preferred fuel because coal produced 4 times energy as much energy as the same amount of wood and was cheaper to produce, easier to distribute. Coal has massive growth in the scale of industrialization.

The oil had been discovered by Chinese in 600 B.C and transported in pipelines from bamboo. However, Colonel Drake's heralded discovery of oil in Pennsylvania in 1859 with a well drilled just 69.5 feet deep. The earliest exploration companies began seeking oil for refining into a newly invented lamp fuel called kerosene. This "rock oil" fuel was cheaper than Whale oil and far safer than the more popular but explosive fuel, camphene and the Spindle top discovery oil in Texas in 1901 set the stage for the new oil economy.

Early energy issues included need for an infrastructure for producing, storing, transporting oil and natural gas. As discoveries grew, the rush for "black gold" resulted in complex economic issues on a national scale, including wasteful over-production, sudden collapses of oil prices, questionable stock promotions and frequent boom and bust cycles.

Friday, December 7, 2018

Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic Fracturing developed in 1940.It came into application in 1950.

Hydraulic Fracturing treatment is used to achieve adequate flows in Shale gas, Tight gas, Tight oil and Coal Seam gas wells. Some hydraulic fractures can form naturally in certain veins or dikes.

In Tight Reservoirs the rocks containing the oil don't have large pores. The oil flow from the rocks is weak and drilling a simple well into the rock won't get much of the oil out.

So to take oil from this Tight Reservoirs and Shale gas Hydraulic Fracturing is used. In the Hydraulic Fracturing they inject high pressure injection of 'Fracking Fluid' like water, containing sand or other proppants suspended with the aid of thickening agents into well bore to create cracks or fractures in the rock formations. Fractures can extend hundreds of feet long. To keep the fractures from closing again, drillers send down a proppant, which is a mixture of fluids, sand and pellets. These allow oil to flow more freely from the rock.

Monday, December 3, 2018

Offshore Drilling and ROVS(Remotly Operated Vehicle)

Oil drillers noticed that most of the oil is produced from wells near the sea shore. In the future we can extract oil beneath the sea floor.

  • In 1880 drillers raised rigs on wharf's. 
  • In 1947 an oil company built oil well away from land.
Due to some politics in the United States about who has the rights to lease offshore areas for drilling purposes,the offshore oil industry took off. One of the technologies that spurred the development  of off shore drilling was ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle).In 1970 Oil industry adapted ROV for drilling.Diving in deep water is dangerous for people.So Military is using this ROV technology to retrieve the lost equipment underwater.

Saturday, November 24, 2018

New "Smart material " that can respond dynamically to its environment

Researchers have developed new material by combining the graphene oxide with the hydro gels made
from a natural material seaweed -derived alginate. This new Smart Material is durable and can respond dynamically with it's environment used in a variety of  biomedical applications.

One Limitation in use of alginate hydro gels is that they tend to fall apart under mechanical load or in low salt solutions.

The research shows that under the chemical treatments this smart material is capable of becoming more stiffer or softer.It means that this new smart material is able to react to it's surroundings.In addition, the alginate-GO retians alginate ability to repel oils, giving the new material potential as a sturdy antifouling coating.

Friday, November 9, 2018

Membrane Technology is one of the fast growing Technology in Separation Process

Natural gas and Crude oil are extracted from the ground or under the ocean with Pipeline transport extracted oil and gas to refineries.In refining the Oil and Natural gas undergoes a lot of  changes which involves the specialized Manufacturing Process.Distillation is the important process in manufacturing.Distillation has 2 types

1. CDU (Complex Distillation)

2. VDU(Vacuum Distillation)

CDU separates the Kerosene,Diesel,Naphtha and Atmospheric gas oil from the crude feed stock.

VDU recover valuable oils from reduced crude.

Membrane Technology represents one of the more rapidly growing technologies that can operate as a "New Trick" standalone process to "Old Dog" distillation technology.

Oil Price volatility .geopolitics and economic uncertainty all contribute towards the continued need to innovate and technologically advance with "New Tricks"if  Petroleum and Petrochemical companies are to survive in this highly competitive industry.

Monday, November 5, 2018

Petrochemical Demand

Transportation Fuels is the main reason of the growth in oil demand and consumption.

In USA,the rate of gasoline consumption has slowed due to the advent of vehicle electrification and government fuel economy targets.There are no such advancements that will slow the growth in the demand of petrochemicals as feed stock for plastic industries.

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) Petrochemical demand driven Primarily by China,India and OPEC countries should rise by 5 million barrels per day through 2040 a CAAGR of 1.5% that is far greater than the 0.6% CAAGR that is predicted for transportation fuels during this same period.

Wednesday, September 19, 2018

World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering

Pulsus Conferences, along with the Organizing Committee Members, is glad to announce the “World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering” (Petrochemistry 2019) which is scheduled to be held at Las Vegas, USA on April 16-17, 2019.

Petrochemistry 2019 Conference serves as a common platform for the global experts to give their thoughts and ideas regarding Petrochemistry Field. Apart from this the “World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering” discusses the Advancements in Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering. The conference includes Petrochemistry fields in Petrochemistry Organic Materials, Control And Instrumentation,  Environmental Safety ,Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, Complex Distillation, Refining, Catalytic, Cracking, Coal geology.We hope to provide you a valuable time and opportunity to meet and interact with professionals and researchers from all through the globe. This World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering encourages the active participation of young student researchers as we are hosting Poster Award Competition and Young Research Forum at the conference venue.

To know more details on this event,Please Visit Petrochemistry Brochure

Conference LinkPetrochemistry 2019

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Measurement- While- Drilling (MWD)

Until 1980s it was difficult for the drill operators to know what was going on with the drill bit as the hole was being dug. Even after the...